Sunday, June 30, 2013


The Great Disclosure As Informed Consent 

It’s all over the news. Disclosure, disclosure, disclosure. It is the revelation of organized crime at the highest levels. It is the revealing of slave colony Earth. And it all has a very important purpose.

It’s not the fact that government committed treason upon the people that is being talked about per say, but that some dude blew the whistle on that government treason and is now seeking asylum from a government that seeks to punish him for his bravery.

And then there’s Wikileaks…

We are supposed to believe that there is a rogue white-haired ghost out there posting government secrets that somehow he and only he has been able to tap. And somehow he has eluded capture for his whistle-blowing, despite the monstrous world-wide surveillance apparatus and smart-grid that has been set up and capable of spotting a pimple on Saddam Husein’s white ass.

And the news reports the horrors of the act of disclosure, even while they disclose the crimes of government.

But what about the actual crimes and treason committed under color of law by government?

What about the disease of organized crime that goes unpunished just because it goes under the moniker of “government“?

This great disclosure of secret government dirty deeds and military crimes has a very specific purpose that most of us have not considered. That is, to create understanding and acquiescence to these treasonous facts by organized government criminals of the world as just the way it is

In other words, this disclosure of crime creates what can be termed “informed consent“.

While the official act of obtaining informed consent is generally done within public notices and meetings, voting, and through other official means, the mere flooding of the airwaves and newspapers with information creates a much more devious form of consent of the people to government crime.

You see, government is exposing to the people its conspiracies. A conspiracy is simply a plan between two or more persons (a person being legally defined as a corporation – and each politician is actually incorporated as a “corporation sole”).

But there is one problem… a conspiracy (in law) does not exist unless first proven in a court of law. This simply means that while a conspiracy may have been happening for 10′s or 100′s of years, it is not officially recognized as such until a government court officially recognizes the facts of the conspiracy. Ironically, before this can happen, the best “conspiracy theory” must be argued in court with proper evidence. Until the court officially states that it is a conspiracy, anyone who claims such is nothing but a conspiracy theorist. We can point our fingers and report all we want on the blatant conspiracies happening daily in government, and yet the conspiracy (organized plan between two or more persons to defraud and harm the people) doesn’t technically exist until the court says it does.

Black’s Law 4rth Edition defines theory in law:

THEORY OF CASE. Facts on which the right of action is claimed to exist. The basis of liability or grounds of defense. (Pittsburgh, C., C. and St. L. Ry. Co. v. Rogers, 45 1nd.App. 230, 87 N.E. 28, 31. Higgins v. Fuller, 48 N.M. 218, 148 P.2d 575, 579.)
Thus, without a “theory of case”, there can never be a proven conspiracy, for the court will not hear a case without proper theory. With this understanding, we can certainly see why the news media and organized criminal politicians have turned the phrase conspiracy theory upon its head and into a negative insult and ad hominem attack against anyone who wishes to prove they are conspirators.

CONSPIRACY. In criminal law. A combination or confederacy between two or more
persons formed for the purpose of committing, by their joint efforts, some unlawful or criminal act, or some act which is innocent in itself, but becomes unlawful when done by the concerted action of the conspirators, or for the purpose of using criminal or unlawful means to the commission of an act not in itself unlawful. (Pettibone v. U. S., 148 U.S. 197, 13 S.Ct. 542, 37 &.Ed. 419; Mitchell v. Hitchman Coal & Coke Co., C.C.A.W.Va., 214 F. 685, 708; Hamilton v. Cooley, 184 N.E. 568, 571, CONSTABLE 99 1nd.App. 1; Browning v.)
This definition is, let’s face it, the very description of the day to day operations of government!!!
It is what police do when they force you to accept exaction (extortion) through citation.
It is what States do when they take your property through eminent domain.
It is what the military does with each innocent life it takes abroad.

And it is what the president does with each Executive Order and Presidential Directive he passes.
For all of these officers are acting in conspiracy – a plan between two or more persons to commit unlawful acts under the color of authority and law.

Amazingly, this controlled media has actually pitted the masses of public opinion against any who dare call it conspiracy, attacking the character of the man by labeling that individual as a conspiracy theorist. It is indeed ironic to ponder that this term is exactly what is needed to stop the ongoing day to day organized crime of government – this conspiracy of powerful men – and that these very much needed theorists are made insignificant and outcast from society for their efforts.

But more to the point, what we see today is the disclosure of conspiracy without the reaction or punishment for the action. For the people have been bamboozled into trusting that government will police itself. With just a bit of logic we can see that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is nothing more than the Federal Government investigating itself! No sane and reasonable person should ever trust a self-investigatory agency to decide on the basis of a conspiracy within its own incorporation. The idea is ludicrous and preposterous!

The raging confidence of the organized criminal politicians and officers in government stems from this fallacy – that the people trust government to govern itsself and punish itself for its own crime. And it realizes that the people have lost their cognitive reasoning. It understands that the people have lost the ability and knowledge needed to actually sue the government and prove conspiracy in court without the assistance of government attorneys. And as an added bonus, government stacks the courts and utilizes the private legal BAR Society to administrate its legal codes.

Most people have been under the contracted BAR legal doctrines and opinions for their entire lives, never understanding that the true lawful Courts of Record have been buried under the wreckage of that private association, which is empowered and appointed by the very organized crime syndicate itself – the U.S. Federal Government under the Executive Department of Justice.

The Supreme Court is stacked with BAR attorneys in black robes (not to mention cousins of former and current presidents). It hears no cases without BAR approval. And so its conspiracy is nothing more than to protect the Federal Government – the corporation that gives it authority in the first place – from any theory of case of conspiracy from ever reaching the Justices of the Supreme Court.
And all of this is so because true law has been usurped by private codes and corporations, who administrate their own copyrighted case law and opinions.

Yet the lawful Court of Record lays dormant, as the highest court in the land – towering over the private Supreme Court – and awaiting the brave men branded as “conspiracy theorists” who would simply utilize its power and authority.

The great disclosure of ultra-criminal conspiracy is happening now. And without the good people taking the responsibility of their theories of cases to the proper lawful courts and out of the hands of the administrators of false “justice” in private law to prove conspiracy on the Record, the facts being disclosed on a massive scale of fraud and conspiracy will become something much worse than the conspiracy itself… they will become and remain legally justified acts done through informed consent. For we are being informed nearly every day of new and more devious organized crime with no punishment or remedy.

Without good men standing in the lawful court and sitting in grand jury indictments, these criminal acts will never be proven as conspiracy, and so these unproven conspiracies will remain nothing but the wasted and un-utilized theories of those conspiracy theorists on alternative radio who are demonized and belittled at every turn.

The great disclosure is the new informed consent, for if no man stands up and dares call it conspiracy then all unlawful acts by government are done by the consent of an informed people… who cower at their master’s feet and refuse to challenge authority.

Authority is such a scary word, but only because nobody seems to realize that authority actually means permission of the people.

Isn’t it time to bypass this private corporation called government and the services it offers in lieu of the law, so that we can once again see law in our land?

Isn’t it time that you (individually) stand up against the crimes that government claims your consent to and to rebut that presumption?

Consider yourself informed…

Read more on informed and presumed consent and other relative topics here:

–Clint Richardson (
–Wednesday, June 26th, 2013



The U.S. Government has been caught conducting an insane amount of vile, inhumane and grisly experiments on humans without their consent and often without their knowledge. So in light of recent news of the U.S. infecting Guatemalans with STDs, here are the 13 most evil, for lack of a better word, cases of human-testing as conducted by the United States of America. Get ready to become one of those conspiracy theory nuts, because after this list, you will never fully trust your government again.

1) Mind Control, Child Abuse - Project MKULTRA, Subproject 68

This is the stuff of nightmares.

The CIA-ran Project MKULTRA paid Dr. Donald Ewen Cameron for Subproject 68, which would be experiments involving mind-altering substances. The entire goal of the project was to probe examination into methods of influencing and controlling the mind and being able to extract information from resisting minds.

So in order to accomplish this, the doctor took patients admitted to his Allen Memorial Institute in Montreal and conducted "therapy" on them. The patients were mostly taken in for issues like bi-polar depression and anxiety disorders. The treatment they received was life-altering and scarring.

In the period he was paid for (1957 - 1964) Cameron administered electroconvulsive therapy at 30-40 times the normal power. He would put patients into a drug-induced coma for months on-end and playback tapes of simple statements or repetitive noises over and over again.

The victims forgot how to talk, forgot about their parents, and suffered serious amnesia.

And all of this was performed on Canadian citizens because the CIA wasn’t willing to risk such operations on Americans.

To ensure that the project remained funded, Cameron, in one scheme, took his experiments upon admitted children and in one situation had the child engage in sex with high-ranking government officials and film it.

He and other MKULTRA officers would blackmail the officials to ensure more funding.

2) Mustard Gas Tested on Soldiers via Involuntary Gas Chambers

As bio-weapon research intensified in the 1940's, officials also began testing its repercussions and defenses on the Army itself.

In order to test the effectiveness of various bio-weapons, officials were known to have sprayed mustard gas and other skin-burning, lung-ruining chemicals, like Lewisite, on soldiers without their consent or knowledge of the experiment happening to them.

They also tested the effectiveness of gas masks and protective clothing by locking soldiers in a gas chamber and exposing them to mustard gas and lewisite, evoking the gas chamber image of Nazi Germany.

EFFECTS OF LEWISITE: Lewisite is a gas that can easily penetrate clothing and even rubber. Upon contact with the skin, the gas immediately causes extreme pain, itching, swelling and even a rash. Large, fluid-filled blisters develop 12 hours after exposure in the form of intensely severe chemical burns. And that's just skin contact with the gas.

Inhaling of the gas causes a burning pain in the lungs, sneezing, vomiting, and pulmonary edema.

EFFECTS OF MUSTARD GAS: Symptomless until about 24 hours after exposure, Mustard Gas has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties that have killed many subjected to it. Its primary effects include severe burns that turn into yellow-fluid-leaking boils over a period of time. Although treatment is available, Mustard Gas burns heal very, very slowly and are extremely painful. The burns the gas leaves on the skin are sometimes irreparable.

It was also rumored that along with the soldiers, patients at VA hospitals were being used as guinea pigs for medical experiments involving bio-warfare chemicals, but that all experiments were changed to be known as "observations" to ward off suspicions.

3) U.S. Grants Immunity to Involuntary-Surgery Monster

As head of Japan's infamous Unit 731 (a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II), Dr. Shiro Ishii (head of medicine) carried out violent human experimentation of tens of thousands during the Second Sino-Japenses War and World War II.

Ishii was responsible for testing vivisection techniques without any anesthesia on human prisoners. For the uninitiated, vivisection is the act of conducting experimental surgery on living creatures (with central nervousness) and examining their insides for scientific purposes.
So basically, he was giving unnecessary surgery to prisoners by opening them all the way up, keeping them alive and not using any anesthetic.

For a disturbing video about vivisection see the video below


During these experiments he would also force pregnant women to abort their babies. He also played God by subjecting his prisoners to change in physiological conditions and inducing strokes, heart attacks, frost bite, and hypothermia. Ishii considered these subjects "logs".

Following imminent defeat in 1945, Japan blew up the Unity 731 complex and Ishii ordered all the remaining "logs" to be executed. Not soon after, Ishii was arrested. And then, the respected General Douglas McArthur allegedly struck a deal with Ishii. If the U.S. granted Ishii immunity from his crimes, he must exchange all germ warfare data based on human experimentation.

So Ishii got away with his crimes because the US became interested in the results of his research.

While not directly responsible for these acts, the actions of the American government certainly illustrated it was more than willing to condone human torture for advancements in biological warfare that could kill even more people.

Not a surprise, considering its past resume. Ishii remained alive until 1959, performing research into bio-weaponry and probably thinking up more plans to annihilate people in different, Dr. Giggles-esque ways to his dying day.

4) Deadly Chemical Sprays on American Cities

Showing once again that the U.S. always tends to test out worse-case scenarios by getting to them first and with the advent of biochemical warfare in the mid 20th century, the Army, CIA and government conducted a series of warfare simulations upon American cities to see how the effects would play out in the event of an actual chemical attack.

They conducted the following air strikes/naval attacks:

- The CIA released a whooping cough virus on Tampa Bay, using boats, and so caused a whooping cough epidemic. 12 people died.

- The Navy sprayed San Francisco with bacterial pathogens and in consequence many citizens developed pneumonia.

- Upon Savannah, GA and Avon Park, FL, the army released millions of mosquitoes in the hopes they would spread yellow fever and dengue fever. The swarm left Americans struggling with fevers, typhoid, respiratory problems, and the worst, stillborn children.

Even worse was that after the swarm, the Army came in disguised as public health workers. Their secret intention the entire time they were giving aid to the victims was to study and chart-out the long term effects of all the illnesses they were suffering.


5) US Infects Guatemalans With STD's


In the 1940's, with penicillin as an established cure for syphilis, the US decided to test out its effectiveness on Guatemalan citizens.

To do this, they used infected prostitutes and let them loose on unknowing prison inmates, insane asylum patients and soldiers. When spreading the disease through prostitution didn't work as well as they'd hoped, they instead went for the inoculation route.

Researchers poured syphilis bacteria onto mens' penises and on their forearms and faces. In some cases, they even inoculated the men through spinal punctures.

After all the infections were transmitted, researchers then gave most of the subjects treatment, although as many as 1/3 of them could have been left untreated, even if that was the intention of the study in the first place.

On October 1, 2010, Hilary Clinton apologized for the events and new research has gone on to see if anyone affected is still alive and afflicted with syphilis. Since many subjects never got penicillin, its possible and likely that someone spread it to future generations.

6) Secret Human Experiments to Test the Effects of The Atomic Bomb

While testing out and trying to harness the power of the atomic bomb, U.S. scientists also secretly tested the bomb's effects on humans.

During the Manhattan Project, which gave way to the atomic bomb that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, U.S. scientists resorted to secret human testing via plutonium injection on 18 unsuspecting, non-consenting patients.

This included injecting soldiers with micrograms of plutonium for Project Oak Ridge along with later injecting three patients at a Chicago hospital. Imagine you're an admitted patient, helpless in a hospital bed, assuming that nothing is wrong when the government suddenly appears and puts weapons-grade plutonium in your blood.

Out of the 18 patients, who were known only by their code-names and numbers at the time, only 5 lived longer than 20 years after injection.

Along with plutonium, researchers also had fun with uranium. At a Massachusetts hospital, between 1946 and 1947, Dr. William Sweet injected 11 patients with uranium. He was funded by the Manhattan Project.

And in exchange for the uranium he received from the government, he would keep dead tissue from the body of the people he killed for scientific analysis on the effects of uranium exposure.

7) Injected Prisoners with Agent Orange

Above is a video of what the effects of Agent Orange can do to children of parents affected, or even exposed, to it.

WARNING: video may be disturbing, but is a reality of what Americans used as biological warfare during Vietnam and what we, as Americans, VOLUNTARILY injected into people for "testing" purposes... with the help of a very popular American company.

While he received funding from the Agent Orange producing Dow Chemical Company, the US Army, and Johnson & Johnson, Dr. Albert Kligman used prisoners as subjects in what was deemed "dermatological research".

The dermatology aspect was testing out product the effects of Agent Orange on the skin. For the effects Agent Orange had on the Vietnamese during the Vietnam War, please click  here  (WARNING images in this article may be extremely disturbing, as they include extreme human deformation, including that of infants.)

Needless to say the injecting of, or exposure to, dioxidin is beyond monstrous to voluntarily do to any human. Kligman, though, injected dioxidin (a main component of Agent Orange) into the prisoners to study its effects.

What did happen was that the prisoners developed an eruption of chloracne (all that stuff from high school combined with blackheads and cysts and pustules that looked like the picture shown to the left) that develop on the cheeks, behind the ears, armpits, and the groin -- yes, the groin.

Kligman was rumored to have injected 468 times the amount he was authorized to. Documentation of that effect has, wisely, not been distributed.

The Army oversaw while Kligman continued to test out skin-burning chemicals to (in their words) "learn how the skin protects itself against chronic assault from toxic chemicals, the so-called hardening process" and test out many products whose effects were unknown at the time, but with the intent of figuring that out.

During these proceedings, Kligman was reported to have said, "All I saw before me were acres of skin ... It was like a farmer seeing a fertile field for the first time."

Using that analogy, it's easy to see how he could plow straight through so many human subjects without an ounce of sympathy.

8) Operation Paperclip

While the Nuremberg trials were being conducted and the ethics and rights of humanity were under investigation, the U.S. was secretly taking in Nazi scientists and giving them American identities.

Under Operation Paperclip, named so because of the paperclips used to attach the scientists' new profiles to their US personnel pages, N***s who had worked for in the infamous human experiments (which included surgically grafting twins to each other and making then conjoined, removing nerves from people's bodies without anesthetic, and testing explosion-effects on them) in Germany brought over their talents to work on a number of top secret projects for the US.

Given then-President Truman’s anti-Nazi orders, the project was kept under wraps and the scientists received faked political biographies, allowing these monsters to live on not only American soil, but as free men.

So while it was not direct experimentation, it was the U.S. taking some of the worst people in the world and giving them jobs here to do unknown, horrible.

9) Infecting Puerto Rico With Cancer

In 1931, Dr. Cornelius (that’s right, Cornelius) Rhoads was sponsored by the Rockefeller Institute to conduct experiments in Puerto Rico. He infected Puerto Rican citizens with cancer cells, presumably to study the effects. Thirteen of them died.

What’s most striking is that the accusations stem from a note he allegedly wrote:

"The Porto Ricans (sic) are the dirtiest, laziest, most degenerate and thievish race of men ever to inhabit this sphere... I have done my best to further the process of extermination by killing off eight and transplanting cancer into several more... All physicians take delight in the abuse and torture of the unfortunate subjects."

A man that seems to be hell-bent on killing Puerto Rico through a cancer infestation would not seem a suitable candidate to be elected by the US to be in charge of chemical warfare projects and receive a seat on the United States Atomic Energy Commission, right?

But that’s exactly what happened. He also became vice-president of the American Cancer Society.

Any shocking documentation that would have happened during his chemical warfare period would probably have been destroyed by now.

10) Pentagon Treats Black Cancer Patients with Extreme Radiation

In the 60’s, the Department of Defense performed a series of irradiation experiments on non-consenting, poor, African-American cancer patients. They were told they would be receiving treatment, but they weren’t told it would be the "Pentagon" type of treatment: meaning to study the effects of high level radiation on the human body.

To avoid litigation, forms were signed only with initials so that the patients would have no way to get back at the government.

In a similar case, Dr. Eugene Saenger, funded by the Defense Atomic Support Agency (fancy name), conducted the same procedure on the same type of patients. The poor, black Americans received about the same level of radiation as 7500 x-rays to their chest would, which caused intense pain, vomiting and bleeding from their nose and ears. At least 20 of the subjects died.

11) Operation Midnight Climax

Here's a government experiment that, when you Google it, has completely different image results than web results.

Operation Midnight Climax involved safe houses in New York and San Fransisco, built for the sole purpose to study LSD effects on non-consenting individuals.

But in order to lure the individuals there, the CIA made these safe houses out to be, wait for it, Brothels.

Prostitutes on the CIA payroll (yes, there was such a thing) lured "clients" back the houses.

Instead of having sex with them, though, they dosed them with a number of substances, most famously LSD. This also involved extensive use of marijuana.

The experiments were monitored behind a two-way mirror, kind of like a sick, twisted peep show.

Furthermore, it's alleged that the officials who ran the experiments described them as..." it was fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and bidding of the All-highest?"

The most horrifying part was the idea of dosing non-consenting adults with drugs they couldn't possibly know the effects of.

Embedded is a video of a soldier talking about Operation Midnight Climax and his experiences with the C.I.A. and the U.S. Government.

12) Fallout Radiation on Unsuspecting Pacific Territories

After unleashing hell upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the United States embarked on numerous thermonuclear bomb tests in the Pacific in response to increased Soviet bomb activity. They were intended to be a secret affair. However, this secrecy would fail.

Detonated in 1954 over Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, Castle Bravo was the most powerful nuclear device the US ever set off. What they didn't expect was for the fallout from the blast to inadvertently be blown upwind onto nearby residents of other islands. The suffering included birth defects and radiation sickness. The effects were greater felt in later years when many children whose parents were exposed to the fallout developed thyroid cancer and neoplasms.

This created Project 4.1, a study to examine the effects of radiation fallout on human beings. Essentially,it was the latest in a long string of studies where humans act as guinea pigs without giving consent and a project remembered by the US as a way to gather data that would otherwise be unobtainable. The US moral standard that history best remembers is that even though the radiation fallout on the people of the Marshall Islands was an accident, it might as well have been intended.

In addition, perhaps as nature's way of adding insult to injury, a Japanese fishing boat was caught in the fallout. The fishermen all fell ill and one died, making the Japanese livid that the US was still affecting them with nuclear devices.

13) Tuskegee

The recent uncovering of the US exposing Guatemalans to syphilis brings back to mind this infamous study. In between 1932 and 1972, researchers recruited 400 black share-croppers in Tuskegee, Alabama to study the natural progression of syphilis.

But the scientists never told the men they had syphilis. Instead, they went around believing that they were being treated for "bad blood" disease as researchers used them to find out the extent of syphilis symptoms and effects.

In 1947, penicillin became the standard cure for syphilis. But along with withholding information about the disease, scientists also "forgot" to tell their subjects that what they were being treated for had a cure. And so the study continued for nearly 30 years more.

Once it was discovered, the backlash to the study was so fierce that President Bill Clinton made formal apology, stating he was sorry that the government "orchestrated a study that was so racist". Sadly enough, it would be horrific, but one of the more docile evil human experiments ever conducted by the U.S. Government.

Source :




NO. 106–21, WASHINGTON, 2000
Prepared by the United States Senate Historical Office
In September 1796, worn out by burdens of the presidency and attacks
of political foes, George Washington announced his decision not to seek
a third term. With the assistance of Alexander Hamilton and James
Madison, Washington composed in a “Farewell Address” his political
testament to the nation. Designed to inspire and guide future genera-
tions, the address also set forth Washington’s defense of his administra-
tion’s record and embodied a classic statement of Federalist doctrine.
Washington’s principal concern was for the safety of the eight-year-
old Constitution. He believed that the stability of the Republic was
threatened by the forces of geographical sectionalism, political faction-
alism, and interference by foreign powers in the nation’s domestic af-
fairs. He urged Americans to subordinate sectional jealousies to com-
mon national interests. Writing at a time before political parties had
become accepted as vital extraconstitutional, opinion-focusing agen-
cies, Washington feared that they carried the seeds of the nation’s de-
struction through petty factionalism. Although Washington was in no
sense the father of American isolationism, since he recognized the ne-
cessity of temporary associations for “extraordinary emergencies,” he
did counsel against the establishment of “permanent alliances with
other countries,” connections that he warned would inevitably be sub-
versive of America’s national interest.
Washington did not publicly deliver his Farewell Address. It first ap-
peared on September 19, 1796, in the Philadelphia Daily American
Advertiser and then in papers around the country.
In January 1862, with the Constitution endangered by civil war, a thou-
sand citizens of Philadelphia petitioned Congress to commemorate the
forthcoming 130th anniversary of George Washington’s birth by provid-
ing that “the Farewell Address of Washington be read aloud on the morn-
ing of that day in one or the other of the Houses of Congress.
Both houses agreed and assembled in the House of Representatives
’chamber on February 22, 1862, where Secretary of the Senate John W. Forney
“ren-dered  'The Farewell Address’ very effectively,” as one observer recalled.
The practice of reading the Farewell Address did not immediately be-
come a tradition. The address was first read in regular legislative ses-
sions of the Senate in 1888 and the House in 1899. (The House continued
the practice until 1984.) Since 1893 the Senate has observed
Washingtons birthday by selecting one of its members to read the
Farewell Address. The assignment alternates between members of each
political party. At the conclusion of each reading, the appointed sena-
tor inscribes his or her name and brief remarks in a black, leather-
bound book maintained by the secretary of the Senate.
The version of the address printed here is taken from the original of
the final manuscript in the New York Public Library provided courtesy
of The Papers of George Washington. The only changes have been to
modernize spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.
To the people of the United States
Friends and Fellow-Citizens: The period for a
new election of a citizen to administer the execu-
tive government of the United States being not far
distant, and the time actually arrived when your
thoughts must be employed in designating the per-
son who is to be clothed with that important trust,
it appears to me proper, especially as it may con-
duce to a more distinct expression of the public
voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolu-
tion I have formed, to decline being considered
among the number of those out of whom a choice
is to be made.
I beg you at the same time to do me the justice to
be assured that this resolution has not been taken
without a strict regard to all the considerations ap-
pertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citi-
zen to his country—.......
Towards the preservation of your government
and the permanency of your present happy state, it
is requisite not only that you steadily discounte-
nance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged au-
thority but also that you resist with care the spirit of
innovation upon its principles, however specious
the pretexts. One method of assault may be to ef-
fect in the forms of the Constitution alterations
which will impair the energy of the system and thus
to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown.
In all the changes to which you may be invited, re-
member that time and habit are at least as neces-
sary to fix the true character of governments as of
other human institutions, that experience is the
surest standard by which to test the real tendency
of the existing constitution of a country, that facil-
ity in changes upon the credit of mere hypotheses
and opinion exposes to perpetual change from the
endless variety of hypotheses and opinion; and re-
member, especially, that for the efficient manage-
ment of your common interests in a country so ex-
tensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is
consistent with the perfect security of liberty is in-
dispensable; liberty itself will find in such a govern
ment, with powers properly distributed and ad-
justed, its surest guardian. It is indeed little else
than a name, where the government is too feeble
to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine
each member of the society within the limits pre-
scribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the se-
cure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person
and property.
I have already intimated to you the danger of
parties in the state, with particular reference to the
founding of them on geographical discriminations.
Let me now take a more comprehensive view and
warn you in the most solemn manner against the
baneful effects of the spirit of party, generally.
This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our
nature, having its root in the strongest passions of
the human mind. It exists under different shapes in
all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or
repressed; but in those of the popular form it is
seen in its greatest rankness and is truly their worst
The alternate domination of one faction over an-
other, sharpened by the spirit of revenge natural to
party dissension, which in different ages and coun-
tries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is
itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length
to a more formal and permanent despotism. The
disorders and miseries which result gradually in-
cline the minds of men to seek security and repose
in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner
or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more
able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns
this disposition to the purposes of his own eleva-
tion on the ruins of public liberty.
Without looking forward to an extremity of this
kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely
out of sight) the common and continual mischiefs
of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the in-
terest and the duty of a wise people to discourage
and restrain it.
It serves always to distract the public councils
and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates
the community with ill founded jealousies and false
alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against
another, foments occasionally riot and insurrec-
tion. It opens the door to foreign influence and
corruption, which find a facilitated access to the
government itself through the channels of party
passions. Thus the policy and the will of one coun-
try are subjected to the policy and will of another.
There is an opinion that parties in free countries
are useful checks upon the administration of the
government and serve to keep alive the spirit of lib-
erty. This within certain limits is probably true
and in governments of a monarchical cast patrio-
tism may look with indulgence, if not with favor,
upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular
character, in governments purely elective, it is a
spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural ten-
dency, it is certain there will always be enough of
that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there
being constant danger of excess, the effort ought
to be by force of public opinion to mitigate and as-
suage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a
uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a
flame, lest instead of warming it should consume.
It is important, likewise, that the habits of think-
ing in a free country should inspire caution in those
entrusted with its administration to confine them-
selves within their respective constitutional spheres,
avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one de-
partment to encroach upon another. The spirit of
encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of
all the departments in one and thus to create, what-
ever the form of government, a real despotism. A
just estimate of that love of power and proneness to
abuse it which predominates in the human heart is
sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position.
The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of
political power, by dividing and distributing it into
different depositories and constituting each the
guardian of the public weal against invasions by the
others, has been evinced by experiments ancient
and modern, some of them in our country and
under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as
necessary as to institute them. If in the opinion of
the people the distribution or modification of the
constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let
it be corrected by an amendment in the way which
the Constitution designates. But let there be no
change by usurpation; for though this, in one in-
stance, may be the instrument of good, it is the cus-
tomary weapon by which free governments are de-
stroyed. The precedent must always greatly
overbalance in permanent evil any partial or tran-
sient benefit which the use can at any time yield.......