Sunday, June 2, 2013


The Brutal Truth Movement

The Brutal Truth Movement:

We are selfless, brave and determined activists who recognise that we are over the target and that we are dead already so we have nothing to lose by speaking the Brutal Truth. We are essentially Kamikazes in the information war.
The Brutal Truth Movement is comprised of red listed and targeted hardcore activists that put out the most critical and brutal information in response to the truth movement being steered by "politically correct", diluted truth (ie "soft activism") Delphi Technique, Consensus Creation and other such Tavistock and Common Purpose style social constraints.
Soft activism/diluted truth as a design and mechanism of social control exploits people's  fundamental tribal instincts and fear of:
1 ) rejection by the majority for being "negative, apocalyptic and depressing" by telling the brutal truth rather than easier to digest dilutions of it, mis/disinfo etc...
2 ) repercussions/dire consequences  and others such as electronic behaviour modification, torture, incapacitation and assassination with advanced and withheld science, technology, mind control etc...
Designed in the agencies of social control and the shadows above government, this "politically correct", "socially acceptable", "positive",  “peaceful”, "Love n' Lighty" community control is perpetrated with tried and proven precision by eager, misguided and/or malicious gatekeepers/facilitators managed by a higher level ‘intelligence’ idiot. 
The perpetrators are not just hopeful people that are trying to remain positive while making the world a better place, people afraid to scare off those new to the globalist conspiracy or people who cannot understand and handle the brutality of our current reality. They’re usually psychopathic and eager aspiring agents of social control within or cranked out of political science, political thought, law, law enforcement, psychology, social psychology and philosophy classes and the co-opted "social justice" collectives in densely populated and *heavily funded* and controlled universities, colleges and other "higher learning" institutions.

Their existence is yet another example of the complete control exercised over anything of significance by the ruthless ruling group who intend to stay on top of the social pyramid as they have for thousands of years.
Examples of diluted truth/soft activism include but are in no way limited to:
- 1) the threat posed by 'smart'meter is merely things like price gouging, invasion of privacy and the little/short bursts of harmful radiation going from house to house, then up to a tower rather than it being installed aggressively worldwide as an integral upgrade/component of the genocidal technetronic grid. 
- 2) that Monsanto's poisonous patents,  pesticides and GMO's are bad for you (even that they kill) rather than stating that they are an integral part of globalist weaponised, synergistic food, chemical, biological and genetic warfare, Codex Alimentarius (“Food Rules”), Article 200, Agenda 21, etc - in short that Monsanto is a major component of the military - industrial complex and that their poisons, products, lobby, subsequent legislation and GMOs = GENOCIDE

3) that 'geoengineering/chemtrails HAARP is "weather modification" (and even control) - possibly to "protect us" from 'global warming' or even make us sick due to the Wall Street connection/lobby rather than stating clearly that it being used aggressively worldwide as an integral component of genocidal globalist complex and synergistic warfare and weaponised aerosol - electromagnetic delivery systems, being:

- i )  toxic, carcinogenic and radioactive aerosolised aluminium and metal oxides, hot particles, etc...

- ii ) chemical, biological and advanced biological and genetic - technetronic warfare, 

- iii ) nano - bio - polymer warfare, 'smart'dust, quantum dots, microswitches, nano transmitting, receiving and control systems. Aerosol - electromagnetic warfare, advanced biological and genetic  - technetronic warfare for population reduction and control and bio - technological/technetronic enslavement
- iv ) tectonic and weather warfare currently being used to kill off Humanity, Mother Earth, Her creatures and ecosystems. It is about culling the ‘surplus population’ and killing off and controlling everything critical to the world's food supply.
There are many, many more examples, of course. 

Soft activism and outright mis & disinformation is what allows these soft ‘truthers’ to get large audiences/numbers of hits while those of us that recognise the urgency posed by and thus expose the most critical threats and aspects of the diabolical globalist agenda are being electronically censored, sabotaged and attacked via the technetronic grid.
With increasing frequency hardcore activists, dissidents whistle blowers, investigative reporters and otherwise targeted individuals, groups, administrations and populations are being irradiated, microwaved, lobotomised with psychotronic frequencies, tortured, physically and mentally incapacitated and assassinated (as per NDAA) with no regard for due process of Natural Law, Human, Charter and Constitutional Rights, the Geneva Convention etc.
Clearly history is repeating, but with much more dire consequences due to the advanced and withheld technology. To be clear here, more people are about to die here on Earth than ever before in human history – badly.
Despite the resistance and repercussions the Brutal Truth Movement is necessary to expose this control of the flow of the most critical information about the world's leading critical threats to the majority as that control is one of those most critical threats in itself.
There is a list of topics which, when communicating the most critical aspects of them, generates the greatest electronic/technetronic response, indicative of the covert and domestic use of electromagnetic weaponry for political control.
Those topics include, but are in no way limited to telling the Brutal Truth about the suppression of the flow of brutal truth to the majority as the Globalists dumb and bring down the population and bring in their diabolical WWIII, Global Domination, Population Reduction and Bio - Technological/Technetronic Enslavement Agenda. This is covert domestic use of directed energy weapons and advanced and withheld science, technology and mediSIN for political control including but in no way limited to:
- i)  chemtrails/HAARP = Globalist Genocide
- ii) the use of private "security" contractors like Blackwater => Xe => Academi, KBR, Halliburton and military contractors like the Carlyle Group, Raytheon, Monsanto, Dow Chemical, Krupp –  too many to list
- iii) False Flag Terror Attacks, Psyops, coup D’etats, on line astroturf and on and off line controlled opposition groups and other such techniques and mechanisms of perception management
- iv) the poisoning of our water supply with flouride, toxic and radioactive particles, Fukushima, tailings, acids, water war crimes/water wars etc. – all occurring with the complicity of our government, Jewdiciary and regulatory agencies
- v)  fracking and other genocidal "power" corporations' activities
- vi) Corexit, Phosgene, other toxic chemical assaults on the environment and acts of ecoterrorism
- vii) GMO's Poisonous chemicals in food and the blatant use of Monsanto and DOW Chemical etc (as in previous wars) as major manufacturers/component of the globalist military - industrial complex
- viii) Pharmaceuticals, vaccinations as WMDs/Murder By Injection, the Medical Mafia, medical - 'legal' - 'insurance' fraud and racketeering, etc...
- ix) Rothschild CounterFIAT Currency, fraud, embezzlement, Ponzi and insider trading schemes, the global economic collapse, bankster bailouts, seizure of citizen’s social security pensions, assets and savings accounts, etc.
- x)  the complete weaponisation and control of all information,  technology, the Hollywood, teLIEviSION, music and gaming industries which in concert with the technetronic grid and weaponised education make up the mind control matrix and everything else of human significance
- xi) Weaponised religious and political ideologies and their divide and conquer rule in the diabolical WWIII, Global Domination, Population Reduction and Bio - Technological/Technetronic Enslavement Agenda: Weaponised Jewry/Zionism/Jesuits/Catholicism/Christianity etc... as well as 'National' Left - Right and Geo political Communism/Socialism/Capitolism Paradigms - all cases in point.

- xii) weaponised and exploited language, national, cultural/ethnic, social, sexual and even the inherent differences between us all as individuals
- xii) Indigenous genocide, ritual residential school and institutional sexual, physical, emotional, cultural and Spiritual abuse, torture, murder, surgical and pharmaceutical experimentation, sterilization, eugenics and the most horrific forms of social engineering in human history.
- xiii) the complete control of our power structure through satanic secret societies, fraternities, Old Boy’s Clubs, shadow government and non governmental organisations (NGOs) – all with a hidden hierarchy/allegiance to the foreign power and all controlled through the dirty secrets bond as they advance through the hierarchy. This is the world’s leading terrorist and criminal organisation – the ruthless ruling group I refer to daily as I attempt to expose them to a significant audience with the intention to form true resistance to tyranny, genocide and bio – technological enslavement and what is to soon be the “Hot” stage of WWIII.
The list is larger of course, but that gives you a clearer picture of how this works. Essentially putting out the brutal truth about any significant NWO topic and critical threat will get us classified and processed. Explaining how rifts are designed in advance and both exploited and orchestrated between us really gets them hopping. For instance, when I typed this document out on this computer it heated up (microwave emissions) and slowed right down, I lost control of my cursor, keys and commands and my mind became limited due to an increase in psychotronic frequencies and microwave targeting through the technetronic grid limiting my ability to continue or edit this document.
It is long enough as it is and I am grateful to have been able to show this electronic behaviour modification in action – from an intimate perspective. 
For all children everywhere, in an effort to combat global tyranny, genocide and the biological and genetic - technological destruction and enslavement of Humanity we must be willing to pay the highest price or the world's leading criminal and terrorist organisation will become our human legacy here on Earth and in the multiverse at Large. 
We have a moral, legal and Spiritual obligation to Harden Up to the Brutal Truth & FTNWO!
To be clear, it is illegal NOT to.

-Alex Hunter
Pres, CoFounder
The Brutal Truth Movement


The Common Rule applies to all federally funded research conducted both intra- and extramurally. The rule directs a research institution to assure the federal government that it will provide and enforce protections for human subjects of research conducted under its auspices. These institutional assurances constitute the basic framework within which federal protections are effected. Local research institutions remain largely responsible for carrying out the specific directives of the Common Rule. They must assess research proposals in terms of their risks to subjects and their potential benefits, and they must see that the Common Rule's requirements for selecting subjects and obtaining informed consent are met.

This brings me to the 2 topics that millions around the world are addressing... geoengineering of the atmosphere and genetic modification of the food supply.  For the past several years researching the public accessible studies and weatherization/climate control projects currently deployed around the world I am increasingly concerned for all life on the planet and I've noticed something that is not really being addressed.  (and please, by all and any means, if you have the missing data I'd really like for you to share it with us)

What I find missing in the reports I've seen to this point is the addressing of  "health and/or benefit to humans" (or any life for that matter). 

An example of this:  The

DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project

ACHRE Report

Chapter 3: Footnotes

1 . For a discussion of the development of the Common Rule, see chapter 14.
2 . We relied particularly on Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp, A History and Theory of Informed Consent (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). Other excellent sources include Jay Katz, Experimentation with Human Beings (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972), and Robert Levine, Ethics and Regulation of Clinical Research (Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1981).
3 . U.S. Congress, The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence [Church Committee report], report no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976). Also, U.S. Army Inspector General, Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research [Army IG report] (Washington, D.C.: 1975).
4 . In dissenting opinions, four justices of the U.S. Supreme Court (Brennan, Marshall, Stevens, and O'Connor) cited the Nuremberg Code. United States et al. v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669, 687, 710 (1987).
5 . Thalidomide was only available in clinical trials in the United States at that time, but was approved for use in a number of other countries.
6 . Louis Lasagna, interview by Susan White-Junod and Jon Harkness (ACHRE), transcript of audio recording, 13 December 1994 (ACHRE Research Project Series, Interview Program Files, Ethics Oral History Project), 37-38. See also, Louis Lasagna, "1938-1968: The FDA, the Drug Industry, the Medical Profession, and the Public," in Safeguarding the Public: Historical Aspects of Medicinal Drug Control, ed. John B. Blake (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1970), 173.
7 . Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act amendments, 21 U.S.C. [[section]] 355 (1962).
8 . Congressional Record, 87th Cong, 2d Sess., 22042, as cited in an attached memorandum, C. Joseph Stetler, Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, to James L. Goddard, M.D., Commissioner of Food and Drugs, DHEW, 11 October 1966 ("Regarding Statement Appearing in August 30, 1966 Federal Register Concerning Clinical Investigation of Drugs") (ACHRE No. HHS-090794-A).
9 . Keith Reemtsma et al., "Reversal of Early Graft Rejection after Renal Heterotransplantation in Man," Journal of the American Medical Association 187 (1964): 691-696.
10 . This research, conducted by Dr. Chester Southam of Sloan-Kettering Institute and Dr. Emmanuel Mandel of the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in 1963 and funded by the U.S. Public Health Service and the American Cancer Society, raised concern within PHS and brought about an investigation by the hospital. Drs. Mandel and Southam were subject to a disciplinary hearing before the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York. The hospital's internal review and a suit against the hospital prompted concern and debate at the NIH. Edward J. Rourke, Assistant General Counsel, NIH, to Dr. Luther L. Terry, Surgeon General, 16 September 1965 ("Research Grants--Clinical--PHS responsibility--Fink v. Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital [New York Supreme Court, Kings County]") (ACHRE No. HHS-090794-A).
For a more thorough discussion of this case, see Katz, Experimentation with Human Beings, 9-65.
11 . In 1967 Dr. Southam was elected vice president of the American Association for Cancer Research and became president the following year. Katz, Experimentation with Human Beings, 63 and 65.
12 . For a fuller discussion of the Law-Medicine Research Institute, see chapter 2.
13 . The development of the Declaration of Helsinki is discussed briefly in chapter 2.
14 . Robert B. Livingston, Associate Chief for Program Development, Memorandum to the Director, NIH, 4 November 1964 ("Progress Report on Survey of Moral and Ethical Aspects of Clinical Investigation" [the Livingston report]) (ACHRE No. HHS-090795-A), 3.
15 . Ibid., 7.
16 . Ibid.
17 . Mark S. Frankel, "Public Policymaking for Biomedical Research: The Case of Human Experimentation" (Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 9 May 1976), 50-51.
18 . The NAHC discussed the "general question of the ethical, moral, and legal aspects of clinical investigation" at its meetings of September and December 1965. Terry's interest in this was motivated in part by the concern of Senator Jacob K. Javits that the informed consent provisions of the 1962 Drug Amendments were not applicable to nondrug-related research. See (a) draft letter to Senator Javits from the Surgeon General, 15 October 1965; (b) Senator Javits to Luther L. Terry, Surgeon General, 15 June 1965; and (c) Edward J. Rourke, Assistant General Counsel, to William H. Stewart, Surgeon General, 26 October 1965. All in ACHRE No. HHS-090794-A.
19 . Transcript of the NAHC meeting, Washington, D.C., 28 September 1965. See Faden and Beauchamp, A History and Theory of Informed Consent, 208.
20 . Ibid.
21 . Dr. S. John Reisman, the Executive Secretary, NAHC, to Dr. James A. Shannon, 6 December 1965 ("Resolution of Council") (ACHRE No. HHS-090794-A).
22 . Surgeon General, Public Health Service to the Heads of the Institutions Conducting Research with Public Health Service Grants, 8 February 1966 ("Clinical research and investigation involving human beings") (ACHRE No. HHS-090794-A). This policy was distributed through Bureau of Medical Services Circular no. 38, 23 June 1966 ("Clinical Investigations Using Human Beings As Subjects") (ACHRE No. HHS-090794-A).
23 . In December 1966 the policy was expanded to include behavioral as well as medical research. William H. Stewart, Surgeon General, Public Health Service, to Heads of Institutions Receiving Public Health Service Grants, 12 December 1966 ("Clarification of procedure on clinical research and investigation involving human subjects") (ACHRE No. HHS-072894-B), 2.
In 1967 the Public Health Service required that intramural research, including that conducted at NIH, abide by similar requirements. William H. Stewart, Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, to List, 30 October 1967 ("PHS policy for intramural programs and for contracts when investigations involving human subjects are included") (ACHRE No. HHS-072894-B), 2.
24 . Frankel, "Public Policymaking for Biomedical Research: The Case of Human Experimentation," 161.
25 . Ibid., 161-162.
26 . U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, The Institutional Guide to DHEW Policy on Protection of Human Subjects (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1971) (ACHRE No. HHS-090794-A).
27 . Ibid., 1-2.
28 . Beecher's criticism involved many aspects of the research, including the risk assessment, usefulness of the research, and the question of informed consent. On this last point, Beecher argued that while consent was important, he disputed the belief that it was easily obtainable. In his talk at Brook Lodge, Beecher questioned the "naive assumption implicit in the Nuremberg Code," that consent was readily obtainable. Beecher indicated the difficulty of obtaining truly informed consent may have led many researchers to treat the provision cavalierly and often to ignore it. Henry K. Beecher, "Ethics and the Explosion of Human Experimentation," unpublished manuscript of paper presented 22 March 1965, "a," Beecher Papers, Countway Library (ACHRE No. IND-072595-A).
29 . Ibid.,"a" and "b."
30 . Ibid., 2a.
31 . Ibid., 2.
32 . H. K. Beecher, "Ethics and Clinical Research," New England Journal of Medicine 274 (1966): 1354-1360.
33 . W. Goodman, "Doctors Must Experiment on Humans--But What are Patients Rights?" New York Times Magazine, 2 July 1965, 12-13, 29-33, as cited in Faden and Beauchamp, A History and Theory of Informed Consent, 188.
34 . J. Lear, "Do We Need New Rules for Experimentation on People?" Saturday Review, 5 February 1966, 61-70.
35 . Henry K. Beecher, "Consent in Clinical Experimentation: Myth and Reality," Journal of the American Medical Association 195 (1966): 34-35.
36 . J. Lear, "Experiments on People--The Growing Debate," Saturday Review, 2 July 1966, 41-43.
37 . Both the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal ran stories on 24 March 1971. See Medical World News, 15 October 1971, "Was Dr. Krugman Justified in Giving Children Hepatitis?"
38 . Beecher, Research and the Individual: Human Studies (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1970), 122-127.
39 . Paul Ramsey, The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970), 51-55.
40 . In a letter to the Lancet, Dr. Stephen Goldby called the work "unjustifiable" and asked, "Is it right to perform an experiment on a normal or mentally retarded child when no benefit can result to the individual?" (S. Goldby, "Letters to the Editor," Lancet 7702 [1971]: 749). The Lancet editors agreed with Goldby. On this side of the Atlantic, however, the editors of NEJM and JAMA, among others, defended Krugman's work.
41 . Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, minutes of 24 May 1957 (ACHRE No. NARA-032495-B).
42 . S. Krugman, "Ethical Practices in Human Experimentation," text of lecture presented at the Fifth Annual Midwest Student Medical Research Forum, 1 March 1974 (ACHRE No. IND-072895-A).
43 . Ibid., 3-4.
44 . Louis Goldman, "The Willowbrook Debate," World Medicine (September 1971 and November 1971): 23, 25.
45 . James H. Jones, Bad Blood (New York: Free Press, 1993 edition), 114.
46 . Jones, Bad Blood (1981), 69-71; Levine, Ethics and Regulation of Clinical Research, 70.
47 . Charles J. McDonald, "The Contribution of the Tuskegee Study to Medical Knowledge," Journal of the National Medical Association (January 1974): 1-11, as cited in Faden and Beauchamp, A History and Theory of Informed Consent, 194-195.
48 . Jean Heller, "Syphilis Victims in U.S. Study Went Untreated for 40 Years," New York Times (26 July 1972) 1, 8, as cited in Faden and Beauchamp, A History and Theory of Informed Consent, 195.
49 . U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Panel (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1973), Jay Katz Concurring Opinion, 14.
50 . Ibid.
51 . Ibid., 21-32.
52 . Ibid., 23.
53 . Senator Jacob Javits introduced legislation that would have made the DHEW policy a regulation backed by federal law. S. 878 and S. 974, 93d Cong., 1st Sess. (1973).
Senator Hubert Humphrey introduced a bill to create a National Human Experimentation Standards Board--a separate federal agency with authority over research similar to the Security and Exchange Commission's authority over securities transactions. S. 934, 93d Cong., 1st Sess. (1973).
Also, Senator Walter Mondale introduced a resolution to provide for a "study and evaluation of the ethical, social, and legal" aspects of biomedical research. S.J. Res. 71, 93d Cong., 1st Sess. (1973).
54 . It is worth noting here that Senator Kennedy had convened similar hearings two years previously, in 1971, to consider the establishment of a national commission to examine "ethical, social, and legal implications of advances in biomedical research." Among the topics mentioned in this hearing was the total-body irradiation research sponsored by the Department of Defense at the University of Cincinnati, which we discuss in chapter 8.
55 . Jay Katz, "Human Experimentation: A Personal Odyssey," IRB 9, no. 1 (January/February 1987): 1-6.
56 . Protection of Human Subjects, 39 Fed. Reg. 105, 18914-18920 (1974) (to be codified at 45 C.F.R. [[section]] 46).
57 . National Research Act of 1974. P.L. 348, 93d Cong., 2d Sess. (12 July 1974).
58 . U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office for Protection from Research Risks, 18 April 1979, OPPR Reports [The Belmont Report] (ACHRE No. HHS-011795-A-2), 4-20.
59 . Interestingly, this committee included Henry Beecher, who, as was discussed in part I, chapter 3, had objected to the imposition of these requirements to contract research in 1961. Beecher's presence on the committee testifies to the common relationship between military and private research during this time. Like many of the
60 . Department of the Army, Army Regulation 40-37, 12 August 1963 ("Radioisotope License Program [Human Use]").
61 . Department of the Army, AR 40-38, 23 February 1973 ("Medical Services--Clinical Investigation Program").
62 . Ibid.
63 . Ibid.
64 . Commanding Officer, Naval Medical Research Institute, National Naval Medical Center, to Secretary of the Navy, 30 November 1964 ("Authorization to use human volunteers as subjects for study of effects of hypoxia on the visual field; request for") (ACHRE No. DOD-091494-A), 2.
65 . Department of the Navy, "Manual of the Medical Department," 20-8, Change 36, 7 March 1967 ("Use of Volunteers in Medical or Other Hazardous Experiments") (ACHRE No. DOD-091494-A).
66 . Department of the Navy, SecNav Instruction 3900.39, 28 April 1969 ("Use of volunteers as subjects of research, development, tests, and evaluation").
67 . Department of the Air Force, AFR 169-8, 8 October 1965 ("Medical Education and Research--Use of Volunteers in Aerospace Research").
68 . Ibid.
69 . Ibid.
70 . National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, MSCI 1860.2, 12 May 1966 ("Establishment of MSC Radiological Control Manual and Radiological Control Committee") (ACHRE No. NASA-022895-A), 3.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Ames Management Manual 7170-1," 15 January 1968 ("Human Research Planning and Approval") (ACHRE No. NASA-120894-A), 3.
71 . Ames required the voluntary, written informed consent of the subject and stipulated that consent be informed by an

explanation to the subject in language understandable to him . . . [including] the nature, duration, and purpose of the human research; the manner in which it will be conducted; and all foreseeable risks, inconveniences and discomforts.
"Ames Management Manual 7170-1," 15 January 1968, 3.
72 . The Ames director was authorized to waive the consent requirements (a) when the requirements would "not be necessary to protect the subject"; (b) when the research uses "classes of trained persons who knowingly follow a specialized calling or occupation which is generally recognized as hazardous," including "test pilots and astronauts"; and (c) when the research "would be seriously hampered" by compliance. "Ames Management Manual 7170-1," 15 January 1968, 3.
73 . For example, one review from this group recommended changes in a consent form to include

[T]he part of the procedure you are consenting to which principally benefits the research program and is not part of your treatment is known as arterial puncture. . . . These risks will be explained to you in detail if you so desire. The entire procedure, including the diagnostic radioscan, takes about an hour.
Although this proposed consent form does not delineate the medical risks posed by the procedure, its statement that the patient's participation is incidental to treatment may provide a greater opportunity for the patient to make an informed decision about participation. George A. Rathert, Jr., Chairman, Human Research Experiments Review Board, ARC, to Director, 20 January 1969 ("Proposed Investigation entitled 'Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow in Man by an Isotopic Technique Employing External Counting,' by Dr. Leo Sapierstein, Stanford University") (ACHRE No. NASA-022895-A), 4.
At MSC, the instruction establishing the Medical Uses Subcommittee was rescinded in 1968. In 1969, formal combination of the medical operations and medical research functions at MSC led to the reestablishment of the instruction as the Medical Isotopes Subcommittee at MSC. No evidence suggests what factors, other than risk, were considered in this form of prior review is available currently. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, MSCI 1860.2, 12 May 1966 ("Establishment of MSC Radiological Control Manual and Radiological Control Committee"); and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NMI 1156.19, 28 August 1969 ("Medical Isotopes Subcommittee of the MSC Radiation Safety Committee") (ACHRE No. NASA-022895-A).
74 . National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NMI 71008.9, 2 February 1972 ("Human Research Policy and Procedures") (ACHRE No. NASA-022895-A). See also, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NMI 7100.9 ("Power and Authority -- To Authorize Human Research and to Grant Certain Related Exceptions and Waivers") (ACHRE No. NASA-022895-A).
75 . Commission on CIA Activities within the United States, Report to the President, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1975).
76 . U.S. Congress, The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence [Church Committee report], report no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976), 394.
77 . For general information on the CIA program, see the Church Committee report, 385-422, and J. Marks, The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control (New York: Times Books, 1978).
78 . Church Committee report, book 1, 389.
79 . Church Committee report, book 1, 400, 402. In 1963 the CIA inspector general (IG) recommended that unwitting testing be terminated, but Deputy Director for Plans Richard Helms (who later became director of Central Intelligence) continued to advocate covert testing on the ground that "positive operational capability to use drugs is diminishing, owing to a lack of realistic testing. With increasing knowledge of the state of the art, we are less capable of staying up with the Soviet advances in this field." The Church Committee noted that "Helms attributed the cessation of the unwitting testing to the high risk of embarrassment to the Agency as well as the 'moral problem.' He noted that no better covert situation had been devised than that which had been used, and that
80 . Ibid., 402.
81 . Executive Order 11905 (19 February 1976).
82 . Executive Order 12036, section 2-301 (26 January 1978) and Executive Order 12333, section 2.10 (4 December 1981).
83 . U.S. Army Inspector General, Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research [Army IG report] (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1975), 2.
84 . One noted exception involved using LSD as an interrogation devise on ten foreign intelligence agents, and one U.S. citizen suspected of stealing classified documents. Army IG report, 143.
85 . Army IG report, 87.
86 . Ibid.
87 . The CIA paid death benefits to the Olson family after Frank Olson's death, and the Army secretly paid half of an $18,000 settlement that the Blauer family negotiated with the state of New York in 1955. The state ran the psychiatric institute that administered the drugs, but which never disclosed the Army's involvement. Both agencies feared that the resulting embarrassment and adverse publicity might undermine their ability to continue their secret research programs. Barrett v. United States, 6660 F. Supp. 1291 (E. D. N.Y., 1987).
88 . Feres v. United States, 340 U.S. 146 (1950).
89 . United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669 (1987).
90 . 483 U.S. 669, 682.
91 . 483 U.S. 669, 687-88.
92 . 483 U.S. 669, 709-10.
93 . George Annas, a scholar of human experimentation and biomedical ethics, has traced the history of the Nuremberg Code in the U.S. courts. The first express reference in a majority opinion, Annas found, was in a 1973 decision in the Circuit Court in Wayne County, Michigan. The decisions in which the Code has since been cited, Annas concluded, reflect the proposition that the Nuremberg Code is a "document fundamentally about nontherapeutic experimentation." Thus, the "types of experiments that U.S. judges have found the Nuremberg Code useful for setting standards have involved nontherapeutic experiments often conducted without consent. . . . Many of these experiments were justified by national security considerations and the cold war." George J. Annas, "The Nuremberg Code in U.S. Courts: Ethics versus Expediency," in George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, eds., The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 218.